Some causes, such as post-nasal drip, are easily treated. Others may require medical attention and a long-term treatment plan.
In this article, we describe why a person may wake up gasping for air, tools and medicines that can help, and when to see a doctor.
An individual may wake up gasping for air for a variety of reasons, including:
Obstructive sleep apnea
Sleep apnea refers to involuntary pauses in breathing during sleep. The two main types are:
- Central sleep apnea, which is caused by signaling problems in the brain.
- Obstructive sleep apnea, which occurs when a blockage in the airway stops airflow.
According to the National Sleep Foundation, around 18 million adults in the United States have obstructive sleep apnea.
A person may be unaware that they have the condition until someone informs them that they snore and gasp for air while asleep. When the person gasping catches their breath, they may not fully awaken.
Additional symptoms of sleep apnea include:
- morning headaches
- daytime tiredness
- memory problems
When the heart is not pumping blood as efficiently as it should, this is called heart failure.
Abnormal heart valves, a history of a heart attack, and coronary artery disease can all lead to heart failure.
Shortness of breath is one of the most common symptoms. At first, a person may only notice it during physical activity. As the condition progresses, a person may develop shortness of breath while resting or sleeping.
A person with heart failure may also experience:
- swelling of the feet and legs
- chest pain
- abdominal swelling
Mucus and saliva produced throughout the day typically flow to the back of the nose and throat and are swallowed. A person may be unaware of this process.
Post-nasal drip occurs when this mucus accumulates and trickles down the back of the throat.
As the mucus builds up, a person may feel like they cannot breathe. If they are asleep, they may wake up gasping for air.
Gastric reflux disease, sinus infections, and allergies are all common causes of post-nasal drip.
Additional symptoms include:
- bad breath
- a sore throat
- a bad taste in the mouth
Once a doctor has discovered the cause, they may recommend one of the following treatments:
Medications can treat heart failure, COPD, and anxiety.
Beta-blockers can improve the function of the heart and eventually reduce breathlessness.
Bronchodilators and corticosteroid inhalers can open the airways and improve airflow in people with COPD. This may result in reduced shortness of breath.
Antianxiety medication can lead to fewer panic attacks, and a person may stop waking up gasping for air.
Continuous positive airway pressure (CPAP)
When obstructive sleep apnea is the culprit, a doctor may recommend CPAP. This therapy involves a machine that delivers air to the lungs, preventing the airway from becoming blocked.
Obstructive sleep apnea may also be treated with a dental device that pushes the tongue and jaw forward, preventing the muscles of the throat from collapsing backward and blocking the flow of air.
Saline nasal sprays
These are often recommended to manage post-nasal drip. Using a neti pot to flush out the sinuses may also help.
Good sleep habits
The following tips can help to reduce anxiety-related gasping and decrease stress overall:
- get enough sleep
- go to bed and wake up at the same times each day
- consume caffeine only in the morning
- before going to sleep, do something relaxing, such as meditation, breathing exercises, or reading.
When to see a doctor
A person may not require treatment if they wake up gasping for air infrequently, show no other symptoms, and can get back to sleep quickly.
However, if a person experiences this symptom often, or if other symptoms are present, they should speak with a doctor.
If an individual also has chest pain or cannot catch their breath, they should seek immediate medical care.
Once the underlying cause is identified, a doctor will recommend treatment that can ensure uninterrupted sleep.
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